Special materials
Manufacture of  SUPER / SPECIALLY pure materials/elements  for application in  special areas and conditions
Copper has high characteristics of electric conductivity and thermal conductivity and is applied in various areas and devices. Parameters of most devices in regular temperatures reached its technical limit. That means that capabilities defined by the properties of materials are extremely exhausted. Cooling is one of the most rational ways to change parameters of certain materials. 
Superconductors are effective only within a narrow range of cryogenic temperatures, resulting in significant costs to maintain necessary temperature. That is not always justified, nor is it simple, particularly if it is helium. The use of superconductors has also other huge difficulties and restrictions.
Electrical conduction is not the only option that may be of interest. Often materials contain value according to its combined set of characteristics, such as electrical conduction, thermal conduction, thermal diffusivity, reflection coefficient, limit of liquidity, etc. Hence, one should consider different possibilities to manufacture systems, elements of devices from non-superconducting materials,  which also can work not necessarily at helium temperatures.  One of them is copper.
It is known, that electrical conductivity (and not only it) depends on presence and distribution of impurities in copper. The 100-th and thousandth (and less) shares of percent of an impurity can sharply reduce it thermal and electrical conductivity.  Influence of impurity is  more appreciable at cryogenic temperature. However and at usual temperatures of distinction in characteristics of usual classical and superpure/especially pure copper are of interest. In each concrete scope or a problem, according to the dominant characteristic, the effect from replacement can differ. In some cases, economic benefit can is not determinative.
Oxygen-free copper of standard marks has the highest characteristics among classical marks of copper. Simple explanation is higher requests to copper in a number of use areas and accordingly to structure of impurity. Classical Oxygen-free copper is “conditionally” divided into:
--  Pure copper
  М0B, C10200, Cu-OF
   Cu+Ag  >  99.95-99.97%
    G : 100-101% IACS
   RRR  ( R273K/R4.2K ) ~ 120-150
--  High-pure copper
  М00B, C10100, Cu-OFE
   Cu >  99.99%
    G : 101-102% IACS
   RRR ~ 200-250
Chemical purity is according to generally accepted standards GOST 859-2001 (Russia),  ASTM B170  (USA),  ISO. Controlled impurities of these standards are the most difficult to remove and influencing the characteristics of copper used in critical areas at high and cryogenic (low) temperatures, as well as in a vacuum.
Classical Oxygen-free copper provides  RRR  ~ 120-250.  There is a special brand of copper for cryogenics,  which provides  RRR ~ 500  -  CG-OFC, Hitachi (Japan)RRR  for "very high-quality" copper on some of available information reaches level  ~ 2000 and more. In this case pure copper of  М0B, С10200 has  RRR  ~ 6-8 %,  high pure copper of М00B and С10100 provides  RRR  ~ 10-13 %,  and  CG-OFC   ~ 25 % if maximum possible RRR ~2000.
Standards  of GOST 859-2001  and  ASTM B170  describe  requirements to copper of the maximal purity  not less than  99,95 % - 99,99 %. Some results can be above 99,99 %, but is guaranteed not less than 99,99 %. Under these standards it is the extremely complex to reach result above  ~ 99,998 % (at correct calculation), at least, guaranteed or for one work cycle.
Therefore, often for Cu 4N5-5N and above, the manufacturer establishes the specifications describing the own list of elements  on which his purity is calculated  and sometimes rules how to count up them to find this purity (100 % - the sum of described controllable impurities). Probably, in some tasks is admissible to not consider some elements, but these moments should be distinguished. For example, in cryogenic tasks any impurity have influence,  some impurities have more influence, others less. Comments to Cu 5-9N are in section "Documents".
We conducted research and development work, experimental works and produced experimental  Specially pure   and   Super pure   oxygen-free copper   in ingots with the highest purity and characteristics. The stable guaranteed results are received. According to methods of analysis LMS, AES, GDMS and to standards of GOST 859-2001, ASTM B170, chemical purity and some characteristics:
--  Specially pure
Cu :  99.999+% - 99,9995+%
Cu+Ag  >  99.9992%
G > 103. 6-8% IACS
   RRR  ~ 1000  -1400*
--  Super pure
Cu :  99.9995% - 99,9999+%
Cu+Ag  >  99.9996%
G :  104-105% IACS
   RRR  ~ 1400*-1900*
*   Forecast of RRR are based upon the assumption " maximum  RRR=R273/R4.2  is  ~ 2000 ". It can be above.
RRR and Thermal Conduction - are expected 5-10 times higher (at appropriate low temperatures) than for classical oxygen-free copper. If the highest possible RRR is ~ 2000, RRR for Specially pure copper is expected ∈ (1000, 1400), RRR for Super pure copper is probably ∈ (1400, 1900) or ~ 50-70 % and ~ 70-95 % accordingly from possible. After annealing.
Forecast of RRR are based upon the assumption " maximum  RRR=R273/R4.2  is  ~ 2000 ". It can be above. In one of studies the monocrystal of copper (presumably > 99,999 %) with R273/R4.2 ~ 2000 has been grown up. In other study (other authors) thermal conduction 16200 W/(m*К) at 4K and 24000 W/(m*К) at 10K has been presented for copper with residual resistance 0,589*10 (-9) Ohm*cm. This resistance corresponds to R273/R4.2 ~ 2700 or R293/R4.2 ~ 2900. Latest Data demand verifications and for the present they are not considered in forecasts for our copper.
Form - the form of ingot is close to cylinder, diameter of 85-95 mm, height/length of 100-150 mm.
Similar to monocrystal (several single crystals).
Use of super pure copper (in particular our quality) can be of interest in differing from classical copper or from other especially pure copper (not our)  by balanced chemical composition, physicochemical and mechanical characteristics. Our superpure copper can be used in manufacturing of superthin wire and tapes, in electronics (micro and nanoelectronics, including radiative-steady), in nanophotonics, in manufacturing copper mirrors for research lasers and other products especially working at low temperatures, in chemistry etc.
Sibneotech is producer of highly pure oxygen-free copper.
Copper is available in purities from 99.999+% to 99.9999+%.
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