Special materials
Super pure Oxigen-Free copper
We operate  experimental  production  and  use unique equipment made by us or according to our outlines and technologies.
PURITY OF COPPER
Purity of copper is defined by the contents of the basic substance and expressed in percentages defined as a difference between 100 % and the sum of supervised impurities. Supervised impurities - the list of elements are measured in the sample for definition of purity. As a rule, it is necessary to define not only the list of controlled elements, but also their limiting contents. Various elements differently influence characteristics of copper. That is, it is important not only the sum of impurity, but also their "portrait" (how many and what element).
Supervised impurities can be defined by various standards or specifications. The most known standards are GOST 859-2001 (Russia), ASTM B170 (USA), ISO (the International Organization of Standards: the European union and others). Under these standards it is the extremely complex to reach the stable guaranteed result above ~ 99,998 % (at correct calculation), at least, for one work cycle. Depending on a problem of the customer and opportunities of the manufacturer the controled  impurities can also will be defined by other specifications.
RESULT of MEASUREMENT in percentages is varied depending on supervised impurities,  from methods of the analysis, the equipment and qualification.  Result depends on  LABORATORY. Purity does not vary.
SUPER     PURE     OXYGEN-FREE     COPPER   /   Cu OF   99.9995 - 99.9999+%
Chemical purity
Result of measurement in percentages is varied depending on supervised impurities,  from methods of the analysis, the equipment and qualification.  Result depends on   laboratory,  quality does not vary. According to GOST 859-2001ASTM B170:
Chemical purity  *  -    99.999+% 
*  LMS, AES (Institute of Inorganic Chemistry of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia). Results are limited by methods and the equipment. Except for Fe and Ag sometimes, all impurities are defined by limits of sensitivity of methods and the equipment. There are restrictions on each impurity according to our standards.
Chemical purity  ** -   99,9995 - 99,99995%
** LMS, AES  + GDMS (for example, National Center of Analysis and Testing Non-ferrous Metals and Electronic materials, China). GDMS has  deeper limits of detection than LMS, AES but has complexities with measurement of oxygen and sometimes of other impurities.
At the qualified measurement, at the suitable equipment, including suitable materials for preparation to the analysis, according to LMS, AES, GDMS for the experimental lots:
Grade  A
Standards
Cu:
Cu + Ag
Chemical composition
" A + "  ( extra )
GOST 859-2001, ASTM B170
5N7 - 6N+
5N7 - 6N+
+ Metals basis (All metals : > 60)
6N   - 6N5
6N   - 6N5
" A "      ( basic )
GOST 859-2001, ASTM B170
5N5 - 6N+
5N6 - 6N+
+ Metals basis (All metals : > 60)
5N7 - 6N5
5N8 - 6N5
" A - "   (  + Ag  )
GOST 859-2001, ASTM B170
5N3 - 6N+
5N6 - 6N+
Basic   &    Fe+Ag  <  5
+ Metals basis (All metals : > 60)
5N4 - 6N5
5N8 - 6N5
Limits " < X - < 0.00X "  of sensitivity of the equipment/methods are considered (are subtracted from 100 %) at calculation of purity as corresponding number/quantity of impurity! Oxygen is measured "not more 2 ppm" - a limit of the used equipment , oxygen can be < 1 ppm and  < 0.1-0.5 ppm but is considered 2 ppm.   Ranges of purity are not for the best measurement (equipment, method, qualification), but for  suitable equipments, methods and the sufficiently qualified measurement. In a chemical composition a minimum, a median, an average, a maximum are specified for current controllable process of work of technology (to the current experimental lot).
Sometimes O, S, Ag etc are not considered at definition of purity and/or calculation of purity is not correctly spent, and such Cu can be specifid as 5N-6N and more. Probably, in some tasks is admissible to not consider some elements, but these moments should be distinguished. Cu 5N-9N measured under the reduced list of elements or with dodges of calculation can have characteristics worse than even 4N according ASTM B170. More about it   -  About Cu 5-9N  >> .
Wishes of the customer to additional restrictions of impurities besides our specified current standards can be considered if it is possible to measure it.  Own technology, an opportunity of achievement of the specified parameters.
Some characteristics
Electrical conductivity -     104 - 105%  IACS.   Results of measurings   -   G - % IACS  >>.
Measuring of electrical conductivity has made for representative sample after annealed. Maximal electrical conductivity of samples is G (max; samples) =G o ∈ [104,24; 105,13]. G o is value measured for one of the best samples on a chemical composition, but not the best. Researches are not finished and with high probability the maximal conductivity of made product is G max > G o and G max is supposed  G max - G o > 0,05-0,x%. For  G max - G o =0  the range of deviation of electrical conductivity R (G max - G min) and statistical distribution of deviation of electrical conductivity (experimental lots) for {G max - G}= { [0; 0,05]; [0; 0,10]; [0; 0,20]; [0; 0,30-0,45] }:
Grade  A
G max =G o [104,24 ; 105,13]
R
[0; 0,05]
[0; 0,10]
[0; 0,20]
[0; 0,30-0,45]
" A + "  ( extra )
G max = G o
0,1-0,2
~0,6
0,8
1
-
" A "      ( basic )
G max = G o
0,3 - 0,45
~0,2
0,4
0,85
1
" A - "   (  + Ag  )
G max = G o
0,3 - 0,45
...
0,4
0,85
1
Representative sample was formed on the basis of the enough of chemical analyses of the samples reflecting a chemical compound of an experimental product. At sampling, the known various influence of various impurities on electric conductivity  also was considered. It was verified and was traced that also is an attribute of quality of sampling and measuring. The structure of ingots of samples is close or identical to other ingots.
Results of measuring of electrical conductivity and the presented statistical interval distribution of deviations of electric conductivity  enough correctly reflects the given characteristics of the experimental lots.
RRR ( R273K/R4.2K ) and Thermal Conduction - are expected ~ 5-10 times higher (at appropriate low temperatures) than for classical oxygen-free copper ( М00б, Сu 10100, Сu OFE ...  - RRR ~ 200-300). RRR  for Super pure copper is probably ∈ (1400, 1900) or ~ 70-95 % from possible (if  RRR ~ 2000) accordingly (after annealed).
Forecast of RRR are based upon the assumption " maximum  RRR=R273/R4.2  is  ~ 2000 ". It can be above. In one of studies the monocrystal of copper (presumably > 99,999 %) with R273/R4.2 ~ 2000 has been grown up. In other study (other authors) thermal conduction 16200 W/(m*К) at 4K and 24000 W/(m*К) at 10K has been presented for copper with residual resistance 0,589*10 (-9) Ohm*cm. This resistance corresponds to R273/R4.2 ~ 2700 or R293/R4.2 ~ 2900. Latest Data demand verifications and for the present they are not considered in forecasts for our copper.
Reflectance and  Surface resistance.  Some results of researches   -    Reflectivity  >> .
There are given some data of researches of reflection loss and surface resistance of a copper mirror from our copper on some frequencies from temperature. In original articles our copper is mentioned as ultra-pure copper 99.999 or highly pure copper 99.999  (HP copper). At present under our grades, the investigated sample is super pure copper.
Shape - the form of ingot is close to cylinder, diameter of 85-95 mm, height/length of 100-150 mm.
Similar to monocrystal (several single crystals).
SPECIALLY     PURE     OXYGEN-FREE     COPPER   /   Cu OF   99.999 - 99.9995+%
Chemical purity.    According to GOST 859-2001ASTM B170:
Chemical purity  *  -    not less than 99.999% 
*  LMS, AES (Institute of Inorganic Chemistry of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia). Results are limited by methods and the equipment.  Restrictions on impurities are not established, the sum of impurities is not more than 0,001 %.
Chemical purity  **  -   99.999+% - 99.9995+% 
** LMS, AES  + GDMS (for example, National Center of Analysis and Testing Non-ferrous Metals and Electronic materials, China).
Current product according to  LMS, AES, GDMS:
Grade  C
Standards
Cu:
Cu + Ag:
" C "
GOST 859-2001, ASTM B170, ISO
5N2 - 5N7
5N2 - 5N7
+   Metals basis (All metals : > 60)
5N4 - 5N7
5N4 - 5N7
Electrical conductivity   -   not less than 103,6-8 % IACS  ( the current samples ).
RRR ( R273K/R4.2K ) and Thermal Conduction - are expected ~ 3-7 times higher (at appropriate low temperatures) than for classical oxygen-free copper ( М00б, Сu 10100, Сu OFE ...  - RRR ~ 200-300). RRR  for Specially pure copper is probably ∈ (1000, 1400) or ~ 50-70 % from possible (if  RRR ~ 2000) accordingly (after annealed).
Shape - the form of ingot is close to cylinder, diameter of 85-95 mm, height/length of 100-150 mm.
Similar to monocrystal (several single crystals).ical purity  *  -    not less than 99.999% 
This is very high quality copper. The electrical conductivity is above than other offered copper of metals basis 6N. The product was received during research of technological limiting and for the time being is not planned to produce.
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P.S. Sometimes in the European catalogues there is a record "metals basis 99.999, OF". It is not known how precisely to decipher - or "Cu-OF 99.95" and simultaneously "metals basis 99.999", or "metals basis 99.999" and oxygen no more than 10 ppm, or something else. It increased essentially  cost in comparison with simple "metals basis 99.999", that is explainable. Our copper OXYGEN-FREE and without "dodges".
We invite to cooperation.
Sibneotech is producer of highly pure oxygen-free copper.
Copper is available in purities from 99.999+% to 99.9999+%.
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